The effect of Title IX is apparent at the University of Toledo and Bowling Green State University, which now both field more sports programs for women than men.
At BGSU the men’s programs includes baseball, basketball, cross country, football, golf, ice hockey, and soccer while the women’s programs offer basketball, cross country, golf, gymnastics, soccer, softball, swimming, tennis, track and field, and volleyball.
UT offers six men’s programs: baseball, basketball, cross country, football, golf, and tennis and nine women’s programs: basketball, cross country, golf, soccer, softball, swimming and diving, tennis, track and field, and volleyball.
Owens Community College offers athletic scholarships for men's baseball, men's and women's basketball, men's golf, women's softball, men's and women's soccer, and women's volleyball.
According to a National Collegiate Athletic Association Gender-Equity Report for 2004-2010, median funding for scholarships – or grants-in-aid - for women’s teams at Division I schools rose by more than 61 percent during that time from $1.31 million to $2.11 million.
At Division II schools, the median funding rose to $574,000 from $317,000 during that time.
At the median for Division II schools, the proportion of grants-in-aid given by gender was about 56.3 percent for men and 43.7 percent for women. The proportions remained steady over the seven-year time-frame of the study.
For Division I schools, the median proportion of grants-in-aid was 52 percent for men and 48 percent for women, which also remained steady for the seven years.
Colleges are also spending more to recruit female athletes.
The median recruiting expenses at Division I schools for women’s teams increased to $96,000 from $66,400 during that time frame and from $8,400 to $14,800 at Division II schools.
“In general, when Title IX was passed in 1972 it was legislated that the opportunities be made equitably to men and women; so the participation rates have increased dramatically,” said Lesley Irvine, associate athletics director/ senior woman administrator at BGSU. “The number of female athletes that are now being provided scholarships has also increased dramatically along with all the other resources associated with those programs. From equipment budgets, to the facilities that are provided, all of those things are looked at when it comes to having equity.
“The other thing is every department has a plan, something in writing, that says, How are we going to provide equitable resources? Every department is very specific, every campus is very specific. What is the strategic plan to ensure that we are approaching things from an equitable perspective?”
There have been shifts in resources as schools moved to meet Title IX regulations.
For example, in 2003, UT discontinued men’s indoor and outdoor track and field and swimming. The move saved the university about $478,000 in salaries, scholarships, and related expenses. A total of 59 student-athletes were affected by the elimination and left UT with a total of 393 student-athletes, 190 male (48.3 percent) and 203 female (51.7 percent). The university said at the time it would put the athletic department “well within Title IX guidelines for participation with respect to equity in collegiate athletics participation.”